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File355 - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief2015-062017-09

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
355 - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief
Duration: 2015-06 - 2017-09
Researcher(s):
Ian Scott Baker, David Sheffield, Malcolm Schofield, Paul Staples
Institution(s): University of Derby, Derby (UK)
Abstract/Results: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Baker, I.
Secondary author(s):
Sheffield, D., Schofield, M., Staples, P.
Keywords:
Supernatural belief / Cognitive Processes / Personality / Parapsychology

DocumentFinal report - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief2017

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
355 - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief
Duration: 2015-06 - 2017-09
Researcher(s):
Ian Scott Baker, David Sheffield, Malcolm Schofield, Paul Staples
Institution(s): University of Derby, Derby (UK)
Abstract/Results: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Baker, I.
Secondary author(s):
Sheffield, D., Schofield, M., Staples, P.
Keywords:
Supernatural belief / Cognitive Processes / Personality / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355.01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief
Publication year: 2017
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND
This project examined if we believe in certain things because we think in a certain way or have certain personality. This required the development of the scale to enable the study of cognition and personality with relation to belief.
AIMS
Examine cognition and personality of people who hold different types of supernatural belief.
METOHD
Four studies were conducted at the University of Derby and via social media. Studies one and two created and validated a new scale. Studies three and four used various measures of cognition and personality to create a new model.
RESULTS
Studies one and two created and validated the Belief in the Supernatural Scale, a 44 item scale with five factors: ‘mental and psychic phenomena’, ‘religious belief’, ‘psychokinesis’, ‘supernatural entities’, and ‘common paranormal perceptions’. Study three revealed two profiles relating to cognition: ‘reflective thinkers’ and ‘intuitive implicit believers’. The final study revealed ‘sensitive and abstract thinkers’ and ‘reflective metacognitive dogmatists’ profiles. Structural Equation Modelling was then used to test different models finding that personality predicted belief, and belief predicted cognition.
CONCLUSION
This project indicated a clear separation of religious and paranormal belief within the new scale, and that spiritual belief overlaps between the two. Also found that ‘sceptics’ and ‘religious believers’ have remarkably similar profiles. The ‘paranormal believers’ did not think critically or analytically. Schizotypy was the main predictor of belief and the relationship between belief and cognition being dependent on the type of belief.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Baker, I.
Secondary author(s):
Sheffield, D., Staples, P., Schofield, M.
Document type:
Final report
Keywords:
Supernatural / Belief / Cognition / Personality / Paranormal / Religious

Final report - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief

Final report - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief

DocumentThe creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale2018

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
355 - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief
Duration: 2015-06 - 2017-09
Researcher(s):
Ian Scott Baker, David Sheffield, Malcolm Schofield, Paul Staples
Institution(s): University of Derby, Derby (UK)
Abstract/Results: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Baker, I.
Secondary author(s):
Sheffield, D., Schofield, M., Staples, P.
Keywords:
Supernatural belief / Cognitive Processes / Personality / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355.02
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale
Publication year: 2018
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
This study aimed to create and validate a new scale, the “Belief in the Supernatural Scale”. Study one used an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to reduce the initial item pool of 71 items to 44 items and to identify a factor structure with 382 participants. A five factor structure was proposed: “mental and psychic phenomena“, “religious belief”, “psychokinesis”, “supernatural entities”, and “common paranormal perceptions”. The proposed scale was then analysed in study two using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with 318 new participants. The new scale provides a wide range of items and indicates that while religious and paranormal belief show a clear division, spiritual belief is spread amongst the factors indicating that spirituality might be the concept that links religiosity and paranormality. The Belief in the Supernatural Scale BitSS provides a valuable tool that can be used alone, or alongside previous measures for research into supernatural belief.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Schofield, M. B.
Secondary author(s):
Baker, I. S., Staples, P., Sheffield, D.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Schofield, M. B., Baker, I. S., Staples, P., & Sheffield, D. (2018). The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale. Journal of Parapsychology, 82(1), 41-64
Impact factor notes: Impact factor not available after 2006
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Supernatural belief / Religious belief / Paranormal belief / Spiritual belief / Scale development / Factor analysis

DocumentThe creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale2017

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
355 - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief
Duration: 2015-06 - 2017-09
Researcher(s):
Ian Scott Baker, David Sheffield, Malcolm Schofield, Paul Staples
Institution(s): University of Derby, Derby (UK)
Abstract/Results: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Baker, I.
Secondary author(s):
Sheffield, D., Schofield, M., Staples, P.
Keywords:
Supernatural belief / Cognitive Processes / Personality / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355.03
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale
Publication year: 2017
URL:
http://parapsych.org/uploaded_files/pdfs/00/00/00/00/79/2017_pa_convention_abstracts_of_presented_papers.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
This study presents the development and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale (BitSS). The BitSS acknowledges the nuanced nature of religious and paranormal beliefs and enables researchers to measure them both together, and separately, with equal degrees of clarity. The measurement of these concepts has been problematic as the primary measure in the field, the
revised Paranormal Belief Scale (rPBS) (Tobacyk & Milford, 1983), contains a ‘traditional religious belief’ subscale indicating that religious belief is regarded by researchers as being an aspect of paranormal belief. The term ‘supernatural belief’ has been used to refer to either ‘paranormal’ or ‘religious’ concepts and such arbitrary usage is dependent upon what the researcher is investigating. In contrast, Metaphysical Chauvinism theory (Beck & Miller, 2001) suggests that people can believe in different ‘supernatural’ concepts and that there should be a separation of religious and paranormal beliefs. While measures such as the rPBS and the Australian Sheep Goat Scale (ASGS) are sound measures, there is a need for a scale that can measure the overarching concept of supernatural belief, incorporating both religious and paranormal beliefs, whilst maintaining the distinctions between them. Two studies were carried out to create and validate a new scale to measure supernatural belief. A total of 382 participants (study one) and 318 (study two) were recruited from the University of Derby and via social media. In study one an item pool was created by taking items from previous scales that measure religious, spiritual, and paranormal belief.
There were three stages in the process of selecting items for the item pool; stage one was the initial search for scales to draw items from; stage two was an evaluation of the scales from the initial search; the third and final stage was the evaluation and possible modification of the items. A 204-item pool for the new scale was generated. This was reduced to a pool of 71 items after
review by experts and non-experts assessing for face validity and if they agreed the items were measuring religious, spiritual, or paranormal belief, this was then analysed using inter-rater reliability showing a ‘fair agreement’ between reviewers. An Exploratory Factor Analysis was run on the 71 items to establish item redundancy and initial factor groupings in the proposed scale. A 44 item, five factor solution was selected. The factors were labelled in the following way: factor one was named ‘mental and psychic phenomena’ due to the items in the factor related to such things as ESP or mental telepathy. Factor two was labelled ‘religious belief’, with the items focussing mainly on religious belief and different aspects of God. The third factor was named
‘psychokinesis’, having items that related to concepts such as levitation or the movement of objects using the mind. The fourth factor was named ‘supernatural entities’, with items relating to supernatural beings such as demons, angels or a supreme being. The fifth factor was named ‘common paranormal perceptions’, having items that relate to haunting or poltergeists. The aim of study two was to conduct a Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the BitSS developed in study one using a fresh sample of participants. The fit indices showed that the data were not a perfect match to the model. It was concluded that this was due to the model’s complexity and the large sample size. Therefore, the model structure and the number of items were retained. The model was also correlated with three other measures of spirituality, religiosity, and paranormal belief. The BitSS scale highly correlated with the scale measuring paranormal belief, and moderately with the other two scales. The BitSS scale showed good test-retest reliability with a three-month follow-up study showing a high correlation. The new scale successfully captures the nature of supernatural belief and provides a wide range of items. The clear delineation of religious and paranormal belief emerging from these factor analyses supports the Metaphysical Chauvinism theory (Beck & Miller, 2001) and concurs with previous research that distinguishes religious and paranormal believers. This further strengthens the proposition that religious belief should not be defined as a paranormal belief. The five factors of the new scale encompass the aspects of the supernatural well and are easy to interpret, by having a strong meaning based on theory, research and previous scales and factors. The new scale provides insight into how these three concepts of religious, spiritual and paranormal belief might fit together. While religious and paranormal belief show a clear divide, spiritual belief is spread amongst the factors. While the rPBS is a psychometrically sound scale the BitSS has more items covering fewer factors than the rPBS and arguably a clearer factor structure. The BitSS adds another useful tool for the measurement of these types of belief that can be used alongside the rPBS, ASGS and other measures to assess the personality and cognitive correlates of these types of belief.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Schofield, M.
Secondary author(s):
Baker, I. S., Staples, P., Sheffield, D.
Document type:
Conference abstract
Reference:
Schofield, M., Baker, I. S., Staples, P., & Sheffield, D. (2017). The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale. In Abstracts of Presented Papers, 60th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association (pp. 21-22), Athens, Greece: Parapsychological Association.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Supernatural belief / Religious belief / Paranormal belief / Spiritual belief / Scale development / Factor analysis

The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale

The creation and validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale

DocumentThe cognitive and personality differences of supernatural belief2017

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
355 - Cognitive and personality differences in supernatural belief
Duration: 2015-06 - 2017-09
Researcher(s):
Ian Scott Baker, David Sheffield, Malcolm Schofield, Paul Staples
Institution(s): University of Derby, Derby (UK)
Abstract/Results: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
Language: eng
Author:
Baker, I.
Secondary author(s):
Sheffield, D., Schofield, M., Staples, P.
Keywords:
Supernatural belief / Cognitive Processes / Personality / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-355.04
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
The cognitive and personality differences of supernatural belief
Publication year: 2017
URL:
http://hdl.handle.net/10545/622047
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
This thesis set out to meet the following aim and objectives: Aim: Examine cognition and personality of people who hold different types of supernatural belief. Objective 1: Create and validate a new scale to measure supernatural belief. Objective 2: Create and test a new model of supernatural belief based on cognition and personality. This would potentially test two hypotheses: the Cognitive Deficits Hypothesis and the Psychodynamics Functions Hypothesis. This was accomplished by conducting four studies. Studies one and two created and validated the new Belief in the Supernatural Scale (BitSS), a 44 item scale with the following five factors: ‘mental and psychic phenomena’, ‘religious belief’, ‘psychokinesis’, ‘supernatural entities’, and ‘common paranormal perceptions’. Cognition and personality would be looked at within the context of four different types of believer: ‘believers’, ‘paranormal believers’, ‘sceptics’ and ‘religious believers’. Study three revealed two profiles relating to cognition: ‘reflective thinkers’ and ‘intuitive believers’. The reflective profile was more likely to contain ‘sceptics’ and ‘believers’, and least likely to contain ‘paranormal believers’. The intuitive group was more likely to contain ‘religious believers’ and ‘believers’. The final study looked at personality alongside cognition and revealed ‘sensitive and abstract thinkers’ and ‘reflective metacognitive dogmatists’ profiles. The ‘sensitive and abstract thinkers’ were least likely to contain ‘sceptics’ and ‘religious believers’ and most likely to contain ‘believers’ and ‘paranormal believers’. The ‘reflective metacognitive dogmatists’ were most likely to contain ‘religious believers’ and ‘believers’ and least likely to contain ‘paranormal believers’. Following this analysis, Structural Equation Modelling was used to test seven different models of personality, cognition and belief. Studies one and two indicated a clear separation of religious and paranormal belief within the new scale, and that spiritual belief overlaps between the two. The scale developed was reliable and valid, and accurately reflected the concept of supernatural belief and enabled the measurement of religious and paranormal belief, where the overlaps were acknowledged whilst still being separate beliefs. Studies three and four found the ‘sceptics’ and ‘religious believers’ have remarkably similar profiles, indicating that the religious beliefs themselves may have been cognitively ring-fenced off in some way. The ‘paranormal believers’ however were not reflective thinkers and were not metacognitively active, indicating that they were not aware that they were not thinking critically or analytically. The Structural Equation Model showed that schizotypy was the main predictor of belief. The relationship between belief and cognition was more complex; it was dependent on what type of belief was active. Paranormal belief required a more intuitive thinking style to be present, whereas religious belief could withstand a reflective mind set. This thesis develops a new scale that measures supernatural belief provides a unique contribution to knowledge by establishing a model of cognition, personality and belief.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Schofield, M. B.
Document type:
Doctoral thesis
Reference:
Schofield, M. B. (2017) 'The cognitive and personality differences of supernatural belief (Doctoral thesis, University of Derby, the United Kingdom). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10545/622047
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Supernatural / Paranormal / Spiritual / Belief / Personality / Cognition