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File340 - A Question of Belief: An Analysis of Item Content in Paranormal Belief Questionnaires2015-042017-07

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
340 - A Question of Belief: An Analysis of Item Content in Paranormal Belief Questionnaires
Duration: 2015-04 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Ken Drinkwater, Tony Jinks
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Centre, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Manchester (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Keywords:
Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Quasi-belief / Parapsychology

DocumentFinal report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires2017

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
340 - A Question of Belief: An Analysis of Item Content in Paranormal Belief Questionnaires
Duration: 2015-04 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Ken Drinkwater, Tony Jinks
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Centre, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Manchester (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Keywords:
Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Quasi-belief / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340.01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires
Publication year: 2017
URL:
https://www.bial.com/imagem/Grant_34014.pdf
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
OBJECTIVES:
This study examined the degree to which paranormal believers, who profess ‘strong’ belief in the popular expression of a topic known as the primary item (e.g., There is such a thing as extrasensory perception), disagree with related items and/or the putative ‘cause’ of the topic, known as secondary items (e.g., Some people have an unexplained ability to predict the future). It was theorised that scoring differences between primary and secondary items might identify certain kinds of paranormal believer.
METHODS:
The Paranormal Belief Informedness Scale (PBIS) was constructed from extant PB scales - it consists of 10 primary items, & 10 secondary items. PBIS subscale scores were used to identify three major PB types in the sample (N = 343): ‘primary believers’ (who believe in all 10 primary items), ‘primary non-believers’ (who believe in none of the 10 primary items), and ‘mixed believers’ (who believe in only some primary items).
PRELIMINARY RESULTS:
We found significant response-rate differences between primary and secondary items across believer types, and across psi categories (i.e., ESP, PK, and life after death). For the full sample, it was shown that there is a significant relationship between PB and reality testing deficits (IPORT; Lenzenweger et al., 2001), but this relationship tended not to be significant across believer types. There was no evidence in the full sample, or in any believer type, that PB was correlated with depression as measured on the BDI-II (Beck et al., 1996).
CONCLUSION:
We suggest that such relationships are not necessarily linear but may only be monotonic, possibly involving ‘ceiling effects’; linear trends should not be assumed when dealing with predictors of paranormal belief.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Document type:
Final report
Keywords:
Depression / Informed belief / Paranormal belief / Primary belief / Quasi-belief / Reality testing / Sheep-goat effect

Final report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires

Final report - A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires

DocumentA question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires2017

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
340 - A Question of Belief: An Analysis of Item Content in Paranormal Belief Questionnaires
Duration: 2015-04 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Ken Drinkwater, Tony Jinks
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Centre, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Manchester (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Keywords:
Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Quasi-belief / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340.02
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires
Publication year: 2017
URL:
https://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/volume-31-number-2-2017
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
This study examined the degree to which paranormal believers, who profess ‘strong’ belief in the popular expression of a topic known as the primary item (e.g., Psychics possess a mysterious ability to know things about a person’s past and future), disagree with related items and/or the putative ‘cause’ of the topic, known as secondary items (e.g., Some people have a mysterious ability to accurately predict such things as natural disasters, election results, political assassinations, etc.). It was theorized that scoring differences between primary and secondary items might indicate certain kinds of paranormal believer, which might then allow us to conduct deeper analyses of paranormal belief (PB) and its putative relationships with deficits and dysfunctions. A complete set of items drawn from ten established PB scales was administered to a sample of 343 respondents. Using Factor
Analysis, we developed the Paranormal Belief Informedness Scale (PBIS), consisting of 10 primary items, and 10 secondary items, scores of which were used to identify three major PB types: ‘primary believers’ (who believe in all 10 primary items, and thus exhibit ‘strong’ PB), ‘primary non-believers’ (who believe in none of the 10 primary items), and ‘mixed believers’ (who believe in only some primary items). We found signifi cant response-rate differences between primary and secondary items across believer types, and across psi categories (i.e. extra-sensory perception, psychokinesis, and life after death). For the full sample, it was shown that there is a significant relationship between PB and reality testing defi cits as measured on the reality testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organisation (IPO-RT) (Lenzenweger et al. 2001). However, this relationship tended not to be significant across believer types. Also, there was no evidence in the full sample, or in any believer type, that PB was correlated with depression as measured on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). We suggest that paranormal believers have differences that may be reflected in their responses to predictor variables, and/or how informed their paranormal belief is.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Copyright/Reproduction:
By permission
Language:
eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Storm, L., Drinkwater, K., & Jinks, A. L. (2017). A question of belief: An analysis of item content in paranormal belief questionnaires. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 31(2), 31, 187-230.
Indexed document: Yes
Keywords: Depression / Informed belief / Paranormal belief / Quasi-belief / Primary belief / Reality testing

DocumentDifferences in gambling approaches between informed paranormal believers and quasi-believers: A pilot study 2018

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
340 - A Question of Belief: An Analysis of Item Content in Paranormal Belief Questionnaires
Duration: 2015-04 - 2017-07
Researcher(s):
Lance Storm, Ken Drinkwater, Tony Jinks
Institution(s): Brain and Cognition Centre, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Psychology, Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Manchester (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Storm, L.
Secondary author(s):
Drinkwater, K., Jinks, A.
Keywords:
Paranormal belief / Sheep-goat effect / Psi / Quasi-belief / Parapsychology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-340.03
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Differences in gambling approaches between informed paranormal believers and quasi-believers: A pilot study
Publication year: 2018
URL:
https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=122405693011702;res=IELHSS
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT
This pilot study examined the relationship between paranormal belief and gambling attitudes and behaviours, and thus extends previous research on informedness in relation to paranormal beliefs (Storm, Drinkwater, and Jinks, 2017). The newly constructed Paranormal Belief Informedness Scale (Storm et al., 2017) was used to select four interviewees from a sample of 85 respondents. Prior to the interviews, level of informedness in relation to paranormal beliefs was the main selection criterion for determining interviewee suitability. Five types of gambling were covered (Bingo, Cards, Horses, Slot Machines, and Sports Betting), which served to guide the thematic process, and led to the generation of basic themes and subsequent organising themes. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis; a qualitative method that classifies configurations and patterns found in transcript material. Generally, interviews revealed a wide range of themes associated with a propensity to gamble. Interviewees expressed views outlining perceived control, luck, paranormal (including superstitious) belief, and gambling strategies that they employed. A range of gambling fallacies and ineffectual strategies seemed to perpetuate gambling attitudes and consequently drive gambling behaviours, but reports differed between informed believers and quasi-believers (i.e., the latter are those who have not fully considered the implications of their beliefs). Most salient were the statements indicating informed paranormal believers were less likely to commit the gambler's fallacy and engage in fruitless gambling strategies. Findings provide important insights into the assumptions made about paranormal beliefs and gambling attitudes and behaviours.
Accessibility: Document does not exist in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Drinkwater, K.
Secondary author(s):
Storm, L., Jinks, A. L.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Drinkwater, K., Storm, L., & Jinks, A. L. (2018). Differences in gambling approaches between informed paranormal believers and quasi-believers: A pilot study. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 18(2), 153-183.
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Paranormal belief / Gambling