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File132 - How memories form: Does consistency in neural activity promote successful learning?2015-012019-05

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-132
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
132 - How memories form: Does consistency in neural activity promote successful learning?
Duration: 2015-01 - 2019-05
Researcher(s):
Louis Renoult, Fraser Smith
Institution(s): University of East Anglia, Norwich (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Renoult, R.
Secondary author(s):
Smith, F.
Keywords:
Memory Formation / Declarative Memory / Repetition / Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) / Psychophysiology

DocumentFinal report - How memories form: Does consistency in neural activity promote successful learning?2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-132
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
132 - How memories form: Does consistency in neural activity promote successful learning?
Duration: 2015-01 - 2019-05
Researcher(s):
Louis Renoult, Fraser Smith
Institution(s): University of East Anglia, Norwich (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Renoult, R.
Secondary author(s):
Smith, F.
Keywords:
Memory Formation / Declarative Memory / Repetition / Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) / Psychophysiology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-132.01
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Final report - How memories form: Does consistency in neural activity promote successful learning?
Publication year: 2019
Abstract/Results:
ABSTRACT:
Typically, studies of the neural correlates of successful memory encoding present each to-be-remembered item just once, despite the fact that repeated exposure can aid encoding considerably. In the present project, we employed the subsequent memory paradigm and representational similarity analysis (RSA) to investigate neural similarity patterns across multiple encoding episodes and between encoding and recognition. Electrophysiological and haemodynamic response data were obtained in three experimental paradigms investigating effects of encoding modality and encoding context. The first set of experiments examined the effects of encoding modality on source memory processes and repetition during study and test phases. Representational similarity analysis (RSA) of the fMRI data revealed modality-independent and modality-dependent source memory effects, suggesting that reactivation of different stimulus features predicted source memory performance when stimuli are repeatedly presented. Overall, the results provide evidence for pattern reactivation to benefit source memory formation and retrieval. The second set of experiments investigated the effects of encoding items repeatedly in the same context or across multiple contexts. Pattern reactivation in the same task condition was shown to enhance source memory for the encoding context. However, lower levels of reactivation were associated with successful source memory performance when stimuli were associated with multiple contexts. Together, the EEG and FMRI results provide evidence for distinct mechanisms to underlie successful context encoding when items were either repeatedly encoded in the same context or in different contexts. Moreover, results from the EEG analyses suggested that repetition effects predict subsequent source memory performance when they occur in a similar time window as the late parietal component, which is commonly related to recollection. Taken together, the present research advances our understanding of repeated encoding of item and source memory information and leads to novel directions for future research.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Renoult, L.
Secondary author(s):
Smith, F.
Document type:
Final report
Reference:
Renoult, L., & Smith, F. (2019). Final report - How memories form: Does consistency in neural activity promote successful learning?
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Memory formation / Declarative memory / Repetition / Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA)

Final report - How memories form: Does consistency in neural activity promote successful learning?

Final report - How memories form: Does consistency in neural activity promote successful learning?

DocumentA central component of the N1 event-related brain potential could index the early and automatic inhibition of the actions systematically activated by objects2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-132
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
132 - How memories form: Does consistency in neural activity promote successful learning?
Duration: 2015-01 - 2019-05
Researcher(s):
Louis Renoult, Fraser Smith
Institution(s): University of East Anglia, Norwich (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Renoult, R.
Secondary author(s):
Smith, F.
Keywords:
Memory Formation / Declarative Memory / Repetition / Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) / Psychophysiology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-132.02
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
A central component of the N1 event-related brain potential could index the early and automatic inhibition of the actions systematically activated by objects
Publication year: 2019
URL:
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00095/full
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT
Stimuli of the environment, like objects, systematically activate the actions they are associated to. These activations occur extremely fast. Nevertheless, behavioral data reveal that, in most cases, these activations are then automatically inhibited, around 100 ms after the occurrence of the stimulus. We thus tested whether this early inhibition could be indexed by a central component of the N1 event-related brain potential (ERP). To achieve that goal, we looked at whether this ERP component is larger in tasks that could increase the inhibition and in trials where reaction times (RTs) happen to be long. The illumination of a real space bar of a keyboard out of the dark was used as a stimulus. To maximize the modulation of the inhibition, the task participants had to perform was manipulated across blocks. A look-only task and a count task were used to increase inhibition and an immediate press task was used to decrease it. ERPs of the two block-conditions where presses had to be prevented and where the largest central N1s were predicted were compared to those elicited in the press task, differentiating the ERPs to the third of the trials where presses were the slowest from the ERPs to the third of the trials with the fastest presses. Despite larger negativities due to lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs) and despite greater attention likely in immediate press-trials, central N1s were found to be minimal for the fastest presses, intermediate for the slowest ones and maximal for the two no-press conditions. These results thus provide a strong support for the idea that the central N1 indexes an early and short lasting automatic inhibition of the actions systematically activated by objects. They also confirm that the strength of this automatic inhibition spontaneously fluctuates across trials and tasks. On the other hand, just before N1s, parietal P1s were found larger for fastest presses. They might thus index the initial activation of these actions. Finally, consistent with the idea that N300s index late inhibition processes, that occur preferentially when the task requires them, these ERPs were quasi absent for fast presses trials and much larger in the three other conditions.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Debruille, J. B.
Secondary author(s):
Touzel, M., Segal, J., Snidal, C., Renoult, L.
Document type:
Article
Reference:
Debruille, J. B., Touzel, M., Segal, J., Snidal, C., & Renoult, L. (2019). A central component of the N1 event-related brain potential could index the early and automatic inhibition of the actions systematically activated by objects. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 13:95. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2019.00095
2-year Impact Factor: 2.622|2018
Impact factor notes: Impact factor not available yet for 2021
Times cited: 0|2019-07-11
Indexed document: Yes
Quartile: Q2
Keywords: Affordances / Actions associated to stimuli / ERPs / N1 / LRP / P1 / Early activation / Automatic inhibition

A central component of the N1 event-related brain potential could index the early and automatic inhibition of the actions systematically activated by objects

A central component of the N1 event-related brain potential could index the early and automatic inhibition of the actions systematically activated by objects

DocumentEncoding variability: When pattern reactivation does not benefit context memory2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-132
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
132 - How memories form: Does consistency in neural activity promote successful learning?
Duration: 2015-01 - 2019-05
Researcher(s):
Louis Renoult, Fraser Smith
Institution(s): University of East Anglia, Norwich (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Renoult, R.
Secondary author(s):
Smith, F.
Keywords:
Memory Formation / Declarative Memory / Repetition / Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) / Psychophysiology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-132.03
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Encoding variability: When pattern reactivation does not benefit context memory
Publication year: 2019
URL:
https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/586446v1
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT:
A growing body of evidence suggests that neural pattern reactivation supports successful memory formation across multiple study episodes. Previous studies investigating the beneficial effects of repeated encoding typically presented the same stimuli repeatedly under the same encoding task instructions. In contrast, repeating stimuli in different contexts is associated with superior item memory, but poorer memory for contextual features varying across repetitions. In the present functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we predicted dissociable mechanisms to underlie the successful formation of context memory when the context in which stimuli are repeated is either held constant or varies at each stimulus presentation. Twenty participants studied names of famous people four times, either in the same task repeatedly, or in four different encoding tasks. This was followed by a surprise recognition memory test, including a source judgement about the encoding task. Behaviourally, different task encoding compared to same task encoding was associated with fewer correct context memory judgements but also better item memory, as reflected in fewer misses. Searchlight representational similarity analysis revealed fMRI pattern reactivation in the posterior cingulate cortex to be higher for correct compared to incorrect source memory judgements in the same task condition, with the opposite pattern being observed in the different task condition. It was concluded that higher levels of pattern reactivation in the posterior cingulate cortex index generalisation across context information, which in turn may improve item memory performance during encoding variability but at the cost of contextual features.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Sievers, C.
Secondary author(s):
Smith, F., Saada, J., Simons, J., Renoult, L.
Document type:
Online paper
Reference:
Sievers, C., Smith, F., Saada, J., Simons, J., & Renoult, L. (2019). Encoding variability: When pattern reactivation does not benefit context memory. bioRxiv. doi: 10.1101/586446
Indexed document: No

Encoding variability: When pattern reactivation does not benefit context memory

Encoding variability: When pattern reactivation does not benefit context memory

DocumentPredicting memory formation over multiple study episodes2019

Reference code: PT/FB
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Location: S. Mamede do Coronado
Title:
BIAL Foundation Archive
Start date: 1994
History:
The BIAL Foundation was created in 1994 by Laboratórios BIAL in conjunction with the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities. BIAL’s Foundation mission is to foster the scientific study of Man from both the physical and spiritual perspectives.
Along the years the BIAL Foundation has developed an important relationship with the scientific community, first in Portugal and after worldwide. Today it is an institution of reference which aims to stimulate new researches that may help people, promote more health and contribute to new milestones to gain access to knowledge.
Among its activities the BIAL Foundation manages the BIAL Award, created in 1984, one of the most important awards in the Health field in Europe. The BIAL Award rewards both the basic and the clinical research distinguishing works of major impact in medical research.
The BIAL Foundation also assigns Scientific Research Scholarships for the study of neurophysiological and mental health in people, arousing the interest of researchers in the areas of Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
To date the BIAL Foundation has supported 461 projects, more than 1000 researchers, with research groups in twenty-seven countries, resulting, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, out of which 172 published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Since 1996 the BIAL Foundation organizes the Symposia entitled "Behind and Beyond the Brain", a Forum that gathers well renowned neurosciences speakers and the BIAL Foundation Fellows which are spread around the world.
Classified as an institution of public utility, the BIAL Foundation includes among its patrons the Portuguese President, the Portuguese Universities Rectors' Council and the Portuguese Medical Association.
URL: http://www.bial.com/pt/
Accessibility: By permission

Reference code: PT/FB/BL
Entity holding: BIAL Foundation
Title: BIAL Grants
Start date: 1994
History:
In 1994 the BIAL Foundation launched a programme of science research grants with the aim of encouraging the research into Man’s physical and mental processes, namely in fields still largely unexplored but which warrant further scientific analysis, as Psychophysiology and Parapsychology.
Since its launch, applications to the BIAL grants have been increasing. Up to now 461 projects have been supported, involving more than 1000 researchers from 27 countries.
The approved applications have benefited from grants in amounts comprised between €5,000 and €50, 000. The amount to be granted is fixed by the Scientific board according to the needs of each project.
The supported projects have originated, until April 2013, in about 600 full papers, 172 out of which were published in indexed international journals with an average impact factor of 3.6 and a substantial number of citations (1665).
Among the BIAL Foundation fellows is worth highlighting the presence of scientists from prestigious universities from the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Russia, Germany, Japan, France, Canada, and many others.
The BIAL grants are promoted biannually.

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
2014 Grants
Start date: 2015-01

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-132
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
132 - How memories form: Does consistency in neural activity promote successful learning?
Duration: 2015-01 - 2019-05
Researcher(s):
Louis Renoult, Fraser Smith
Institution(s): University of East Anglia, Norwich (UK)
Contents: Contents:
Bursary agreement
Application form
Correspondence
Progress report
Final report
1 Article
Language: eng
Author:
Renoult, R.
Secondary author(s):
Smith, F.
Keywords:
Memory Formation / Declarative Memory / Repetition / Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) / Psychophysiology

Reference code: PT/FB/BL-2014-132.04
Location: BF-GMS
Title:
Predicting memory formation over multiple study episodes
Publication year: 2019
URL:
https://psyarxiv.com/937ft/
Abstract/Results: ABSTRACT
Repeated study typically improves episodic memory performance. Two different types of explanations of this phenomenon have been put forward: 1) reactivating the same representations strengthens and stabilizes memories, or, in contrast, 2) greater encoding variability - through changes in context - benefits memory by promoting richer traces and a larger variety of retrieval cues. The present experiment was designed to directly compare these predictions in a design with multiple repeated study episodes, allowing to dissociate memory for studied items and their context of study. Participants repeatedly encoded names of famous people four times, either in the same task (optimal encoding for a reactivation view), or in different tasks (optimal encoding for an encoding variability view). During the test phase, an old/new judgement task was used to assess item memory, followed by a source memory judgement about the encoding task. Consistent with predictions from the encoding variability view, encoding stimulus in different contexts resulted in higher item memory and lower rates of forgetting. In contrast, consistent with the reactivation view, source memory performance was higher when participants encoded stimuli in the same task repeatedly. Taken together, our findings indicate that encoding variability benefits episodic memory, by increasing the number of items that are recalled and by decreasing forgetting. These benefits are however at the expenses of source recollection and memory for details, which are decreased, likely due to interference and generalisation across contexts.
Accessibility: Document exists in file
Language:
eng
Author:
Sievers, C.
Secondary author(s):
Renoult, L.
Document type:
Online paper
Reference:
Sievers, C., & Renoult, L. (2019, February 4). Predicting memory formation over multiple study episodes. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/937ft
Indexed document: No
Keywords: Episodic memory / Learning / Repetition / Context

Predicting memory formation over multiple study episodes

Predicting memory formation over multiple study episodes